And in Denmark there is a Jutland Memorial Park – Memorial Park
And a Sea War Museum about Jutland, with some English and German language pages to be added soon – Sea War Museum.
Hopefully one exhibit will the restored sketch of Jack Travers Cornwell (posthumous) VC: The original drawing was made by Frank O. Salisbury.
(And) “is a 271 x 151.5 cm large preparatory charcoal and pastel sketch which is in a very poor and fragile state and in need of serious conservation.
An appeal has been launched at
A great biographical page comes from the Newham Heritage Project.
Jack Cornwell-Newham Heritage Project
There is only a further fourteen days left to fund the Appeal.
One of the intriguing facets of Great War at Sea Poetry Project is the occasional elevation of sailors to the status of demi-gods .
Most noticeably in Kipling’s ‘The Verdicts’, the verse first introduces then negates the idea. Heroes aren’t made in the heat of battle.
Not in the thick of the fight,
Not in the press of the odds,
Do the heroes come to their height,
Or we know the demi-gods.
But as the last two verses proclaim…..
They are too near to be great,
But our children shall understand
When and how our fate
Was changed, and by whose hand.
Our children shall measure their worth.
We are content to be blind
But we know that we walk on a new-born earth
With the saviours of mankind.
So heroes are made by the praise of future generations, rather than the ‘blind’ of the present.
Interesting to note that Kipling implied that the earth was ‘new-born’ after Jutland. It’s hard to think of a sea battle that was so anticipated by so many people.
Elements of the British public wanted a new ‘Trafalgar’ , the naval lobby of imperial Germany wanted to test their new fleet in real battle, and crush the British blockade. On 31st May/1st June 1916 the greatest sea battle ever known was fought. It wasn’t decisive….British casualties were higher : 6094 men dead with 133,000 tons of shipping sunk compared to the Germans 2551 men dead and 62,300 tons lost.
The numbers of casualties was hardly high by World War 1 battle standards but the long term domination of the North Sea surface by Britain remained. This drove the Germans back to increasing U boat activity which had been partially restricted in 1915.
Amongst the Jutland British dead was the aforementioned Boy First Class John (Jack) Travers Cornwell of HMS Chester who in Admiral Beatty’s words:
Mortally wounded early in the action, he nevertheless remained standing alone at a most exposed post quietly awaiting orders with the gun crew dead and wounded all round him.His age was under 16 1/2 years. I regret that he has since died, but I recommend his case for special recommendation to his memory and as an acknowledgement of the high example set by him.
(source ‘The Battle of Jutland’ Geoffrey Bennett, 1964).
A posthumous VC was awarded. Interesting to hear the citation of the ‘high example’ . A massive amount of the Royal Navy’s work during the Great War involved patrolling and blockading. Many of the public wanted active heroism. One response in poetry was the elevation of those who fought.
This is in contrast to modern day historians who have cited the higher British casualty rate and loss of shipping : A prime example can be found in Ben Wilson’s ‘Empire of the Deep-The Rise and Fall of the British Navy’ (2013) , with the author concluding that
“Raw figures are no basis to claim a victory,however. Both sides managed to lose the Battle of Jutland…”
A Souvenir programme for Jutland, as if it was a show, was published a few weeks after the battle. Consisting of some 36 pages, there was analysis of the battle, commemoration of the British War dead,a history of the Kaiser’s navy. Also adverts for various products such as ‘Swan Pyjamas’, ‘Liberty Soap’ and cigarettes which featured a set of cards commemorating women’s war work. There was one poem, ‘To Beatty’s Boys’ written by one ‘Arthur Waghorne’.
At the time of writing I have not managed to establish who Arthur Waghorne was.
Great War at Sea Poetry website page on Jutland
Full text of ‘Souvenirs of the Great Naval Battle and the Roll of Honour’ . (Thanks to Tim Lewin for his assistance.)
TO BEATTY’S BOYS.
Were ye Gods, or mere boys.
In your chariots of grey.
On the storm-trodden way.
With your thunderbolt toys
And the earth-rending noise
Of your play ?
As ye drove in swift might
Down the battle wrecked line.
Ye were surely divine
Tor a day and a night.
In Olympian fight
On the brine.
As Immortals ye strove
At the gun and the wheel,
From the tops to the keel.
With the plaudits of Jove
When your thunderbolts drove
Through the steel.
With our grief ocean-deep.
And our praise heaven-high
For your messmates who lie
In their glorious sleep.
We can smile as we weep
How the Jubilant cheers.
That were quenched on their lips
As they sank with their ships.
Ever ring in our ears!
How their glory appears